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What Causes Acne On The Face And How To Prevent It

picture what causes acne on the face and how to prevent it
what causes acne on the face and how to prevent it

Almost 90% of people in this world ever suffer from acne. Acne is a common skin condition linked to several factors. Not only affect the skin's appearance, but acne also causes mental problems.

People who suffer from acne most likely have less confidence and stress, and in some worse cases, it leads to depression.

What Causes Acne On The Face And How To Prevent It

Acne occurs due to a blockage in the skin pores, causing small bumpy skin. Sometimes the bumps are filled with pus.

Acne Symptoms

Acne appears on the face usually will be accompanied by several common symptoms such as,
  • There is a sudden papule, tiny bumps, or even lumps underneath your skin.
  • By that time, you can feel itchy around the lumpy skin area
  • The skin color around the lump getting pink or red
  • You start to feel the inflamed and painful skin
  • If the bump or lump contains pus, the color becomes red or yellow.
  • You feel a burning sensation around the bumpy or lumpy area.
If you keep touching your acne or bumpy skin areas, it will likely increase the risk of inflamed skin. Inflamed acne is prone to the following conditions,
  • Cystic - are big soft lumps underneath your skin that are filled with pus and are very painful.
  • A nodule -  is a hard lump that forms underneath your skin, without pus but very painful.
  • Pustules - is a tiny or small bump with pus on the top or center of the bumps.
  • Papules are small or tiny red bumps without pus but also cause pain.

Acne Causes

Many factors can trigger acne breakout. Following are some factors that can cause acne on the face

1. Excessive sebum production

Sebum is a substance produced by the oil glands to keep the skin moisturized. Sebum production can increase up to 5 times during adolescence due to the increase in androgen hormones.

But not only that, but excessive sebum production can also be caused by several factors such as bad eating habits, lack of rest, poor hygiene, lack of drinking water, hormonal imbalance, pollution, and soon.

People who love to eat fried foods, fast foods, and sugary food also tend to stimulate thicker sebum production, which can trigger clogged pores.

However, the primary major that can stimulate the oil glands to produce excessive sebum is your skin's lack of moisture.

If your skin lack moisture, your oil glands will think that your skin is too dry and need extra moisture and lubricant. Therefore, your oil glands will keep producing sebum, and in the end, you will end up with oily skin.

2. Inflammation

Research shows that acne begins with the release of inflammatory cells in the blood vessels around the hair follicles.

The actual cause of the inflammation is still unknown, but many factors can lead to this condition. For example, inflammation is often associated with free radicals that attack healthy cells. However, there is a suspicion that inflammation is also related to genetic factors.

3. Clogged follicle

Pores and follicles are lined with skin cells. When inflammation occurs, the skin cells will thicken and accumulate inside the follicle. This condition then causes your follicles to get clogged.

Clogged follicles can swell and develop blackheads and whiteheads. Blackheads are whiteheads oxidized due to exposure to air outside the skin.

Blackheads can turn into acne if they get contaminated by bacteria. It can be developed into nodules, pustules, papules, or even cysts. 

4. Bacteria

The bacteria that cause acne is Cutibacterium acnes (previously called Propionibacterium acnes). This bacteria can infect the clogged hair follicles and cause inflammation.

Cutinacterium acne is bacteria that live on human skin and contribute to acne development. According to the research, the strain of bacteria will determine the severity of acne development. However, not all acne bacteria can trigger acne breakout.

Acne Risk Factors

Acne can be experienced by anyone. However, several factors can increase a person's risk of developing acne.

Below are some acne risk factors that generally occur:

Hormonal problems

Hormonal problems often occur when someone enters puberty, before menstruation, during the first 3 months of pregnancy, or due to PCOS. 

That's because the fluctuations of hormones can cause imbalance, which affects sebum production. But, conversely, the imbalance of hormones will cause an increase in sebum production.

Heredity factors

Someone who has a family with a history of struggling with acne is likely will experience the same things.

Skin friction

Skin friction with objects, such as sleeping with the cheek against the pillow, can increase the risk of acne.

Taking certain drugs

Taking drugs like lithium, corticosteroids, and anticonvulsants will increase the chance of developing acne.

Using comedogenic cosmetics

Using cosmetics containing oil and comedogenic will increase your chance of developing blackheads and acne. The event will increase, especially if the cosmetics are not cleaned properly.

Smoking habit

People who smoke tend to develop more acne due to a lack of oxygen in their skin. In addition, smoking will disrupt the blood flow and reduce the nutrient absorption the skin needs.


People who experience stress a lot will also be prone to acne. The stress level will affect the sebaceous gland or oil gland functions. Sebaceous glands tend to produce more sebum when people experience stress.

Acne Preventions

Although acne can affect everyone, it doesn't mean it can't be prevented. Following are some efforts to prevent acne development,
  • Always remove your make-up and wash your face before going to sleep
  • Wash your face twice  a day using a gentle cleanser
  • Manage your stress level by doing exercise, meditation, or doing your hobbies
  • Avoid wearing heavy makeup
  • Avoids cosmetics that contain oil and comedogenic
  • Avoid using skin care products that contain perfumes and other allergens
  • Always wears sunscreen of at least SPF30
  • Use skincare that contains exfoliant active ingredients such as AHA, BHA, PHA, and retinoids.

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